Our work has been focused on the technology development and clinical translation of optical imaging and sensing using near-infrared light. This talk will report on our efforts in two major application areas:  in the context of breast cancer management, we are combining dynamic diffuse optical tomography with x-ray digital breast tomosynthesis to improve breast cancer diagnosis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring outcomes; in the context of neuromonitoring, we are advancing methods for the accurate quantification of brain health in the presence of systemic physiology interference in adults, by using a combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy techniques together with advanced light transport models, with the goal to offer new tools for improving the management of brain perfusion in patients undergoing cardiovascular interventions.