Research and development (R&D) of medical technologies require data from health records. Anonymization is the key to overcoming the ethical and legal limitations regarding the secondary use of medical data for R&D. The first part of the talk will discuss the relevant ethical and legal standards, as well as various variations, loopholes and alternatives to anonymization. The second part will focus on the residual connection between medical data and the data subject following anonymization. The third part of the talk will provide a brief overview of our clinically-driven research in medical image analysis.